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Kaunas from its Origins to the Fall of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1795)


Second half of the 10th millenium BC the first Stone Age (Paleolith) campsites appeared at the confluence of the Nemunas and the Neris rivers, later inhabited by regular settlers. 
In the 2nd–4th centuries a group of people settled at the confluence of the Nemunas and the Neris. 
10–12th centuries places where numerous items of imported raw materials, goods, exchange measures, and specific burial customs have been discovered.  
1361 Kaunas (Kawen) and its castle were mentioned in Vygandas Marburgietis‘ chronicles. 
Around 1400 the Church of the Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary (Vytautas the Great) was built on the bank of the Nemunas and the Franciscan monastery was established. 
09 (or 16). 02.1408 Vytautas the Great granted Kaunas the so-called Magdeburg Rights,  
22.04.1413 Kaunas Parochial St. Peter and Paul‘s Church (present St. Peter and Paul Archcathedral Basilica) was mentioned for the first time. 
1441–1532* an office of the Hanseatic League was functioning in Kaunas. 
1463 Kazimieras Jogailaitis expanded the city rights (the oldest known privilege). 
1469* Kazimieras Jogailaitis invited Bernardines who established a fraternity in Kaunas and built St. George the Martyr‘s Church and a monastery by 1502. 
1473 the first Kaunas parochial school (at the parochial St. Peter and Paul‘s church) was mentioned. 
15th century* St. Michael‘s Church was built (the exact date unknown). In 1493 it was mentioned in written documents for the first time.  
15th century* the private Perkūnas house was built (Aleksoto St. 6), which in 1546 was sold by the Kaunas citizen Steponas Dulkė to his neighbour Bernardas Bitneris.  
the 15th century the Residence of the Jogailaičiai Family was built near Franciscan Monastery (to the South-East of the Turgaus Square). 
At the end of the 15th century a sisterhood of Bernardine nuns was set up in Kaunas.  
1503 the gothic St Gertrude‘s Church was built. 
1519 the first hospital (špitolė) with 12 beds was established  
1522 the first surviving book of Kaunas Magistrate was started. 
1540 the auroch in the Kaunas coat of arms was decorated with the Latin (St. Hubert‘s) cross between the horns.  
1542 construction of the City Hall started. 
Around 1545* the first barber shops were mentioned 
1558 Evangelist Lutheran church (kirchė) was established. 
1559 Panemunė estate, which later developed into a settlement, was first mentioned in written sources. In 1763 Panemunė was granted town rights. 
1577* Kaunas‘ paper mill was first mentioned. 
1584* fraternity of Reformed Evangelicals established a printing house in Kaunas. 
1607–1635 city brick wall and soil ramparts were built. After the 1655–1660 war, the construction of the City Tower, also called the Miller‘s Tower, started (82 Kęstučio St./Laisvės Ave.). 
1631 royal Secretary Dominykas Narkevičius invited Dominicans to Kaunas and donated his house in Didžioji Street (present Vilniaus St.) to them. In 1641, Dominicans formally settled in Kaunas. 
1649 a four-form Jesuit school was opened. 
1655–1661 Russian occupation and the plague in the city. 
1666* construction of St. Francis Xavier Church started in Rotušės square. 
1667 the construction of Pažaislis (Camaldolese) monastery started. 
1685–1700 the Church of the Holy Cross (Carmelite) was built. 
Early 18th century* Vilijampolė Jewish cemetery was established, 
20.12.1701 during the Northern War (1700–1721), the Swedish army took Kaunas without difficulty 
1763 the first stone church in Aukštoji Panemunė, consecrated as Apostles Simon and Jude Church, was built 
1784 Gotfridas Lėjus opened a pharmacy, which was moved in 1860 to the newly-paved Nikolayevski Avenue (present Laisvės Ave) by his widow, Charlotte. 
1786–1792 a reform period in Kaunas.