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First Republic of Lithuania (1918–1940)


02.01.1919 the Provisional Government of Lithuania moved from Vilnius to Kaunas.  
12.01.1919 thanks to the efforts of Dr. R. Šliūpas and other physicians, the Lithuanian Red Cross Society was established in Kaunas (before World War I, there existed a branch of the Russian Red Cross).  
15.01.1919 a military school was established in Kaunas (Donelaičio St. 13), which trained junior officers for the Lithuanian army. 
10.02.1919 private Kaunas Polish Gymnasium was established which in 1929 was named after Adomas Mickevičius. 
12.03.1919 is considered the birthdate of the Lithuanian military aviation.  
April 1919, the first cinema Palas was established, after Lithuania regained independence in 1918, 
18.05.1919 is begining of development Lithuanian sport – the Lithuanian Sports Union was established, and the Lithuanian sports movement was revived. 
11.07.1919 German soldiers left Kaunas, providing freedom for the national State institutions. 
15.07.1919 under the initiative of Tadas Ivanauskas, the first nature research institution was established – Nature research station with a museum (its origins reach back to 1859–1861, as the first exhibits are dated then). 
15.08.1919 the Lithuanian national opera Birutė was staged by A. Sutkus and J. Tallat-Kelpša at the National Theatre (authors - M. Petrauskas and G. Landsbergis-Žemkalnis);  
15.12.1919 the formation of the War museum started; on 16.02.1921 it was opened in the manège of forces of Tsarist Russia 111th Don Infantry Regiment. 
8.09.1919 Lithuania and Latvia entered into diplomatic relations and changed their representations.  
1919 close suburbs were incorporated into the city: Vilijampolė, Žemieji Šančiai, parts of Aleksotas and Žaliakalnis.  
1919 the Central Library of Lithuania (present Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania) was established in the palace of Seimas (Gimnazijos St. 3).  
1919 J. Naujalis established a private musical school, which was reorganised into a state-supported school on 01.10.1920 , and on 01.04.1933 – into Kaunas Conservatoire. 
1919 the present Steponas Darius and Stasys Girėnas Gymnasium was established. 
1919 is considered as the birth-year of Kaunas Emergency Medical Service Station (KEMSS). 
1919 started operating narrow gauge railway (Lith. siaurukas) of Kaunas 
1919 the mill and warehouse complex, built in the period when Lithuania was under the rule of Czarist Russia (1887–1890), became the property of an independent Lithuania. 
15.01.1920 in order to unify the level of the officers‘ military and general education, temporary courses for officers were established in Kaunas, and on 13.04.1921 – Higher Courses for Officers.  
27.01.1920 higher Courses started their activities.  
21–23.02.1920 the pro-communist rebelion of the soldiers in the Kaunas Garrison. 
01.04.1920 Lithuanian Telegram Agency ELTA was established. It worked in Kaunas until 1944. 
15.05.1920 the Constituent Assembly (Seimas) started its work in Kaunas City Theatre (under the Act of 16.02.1918), taking over the rule of the country and declaring Lithuania a democratic republic. 
25.05.1920 stock company “Ringuva” was established in Žemieji Šančiai. 
07.08.1920 German Real Secondary School was opened, in 1930 it became a gymnasium.  
31.08.1920 attorney A. Akselrod came to Kaunas, even before the ratification of a treaty with the USSR. 
17.09.1920 private Russian gymnasium was established by the initiative of Russian teachers’ association “Science-Light” (chairman A. Timinskis).  
1920 JSC Nemunas (Vytauto Ave. 26a, old numeration) was established. 
1920 the Society of Lithuanian Art Promoters established the Drama and Opera theatres in Kaunas City Theatre (present Kaunas State Musical Theatre).  
1920 Kaunas Higher Technical School was established – the first school in independent Lithuania for training technical specialists. 
1920 middle-chain medical staff trainings had been started. There were 10-month-length midwifery courses established at the Kaunas City Hospital. In addition, Red Cross Society also organized 2-year-length Sisters of Mercy training courses. 
1920 the School of horticulture and olericulture was established in Aukštoji Freda Manor owned by Juzef Godlevski. 
1920 Drawing courses were established, which were reorganised into Kaunas Art School in 1922. It functioned until 1940. 
1920 Industry and trade company “Drobė” was established.  
1920 Kaunas 2nd secondary school was opened in Šančiai that in 1923 became 2nd pro-gymnasium. 
1920–1940 the famous Maksas Konradas‘ cafe was located on Laisvės Ave. 25 (present 47; opened as a patisserie in 1852, since 1862 – a cafe) – the main venue of Kaunas artists and intellectuals during the interwar period. 
1920–1940 embassy of Germany rented premises in 19 Gedimino St. 
In 1920–1940 many Jewish gymnasiums were established in Kaunas:  
21.02.1921 in Kaunas was established publisching house and book-shop of company "Dirva“ (director A. Dundzila) 
20.06.1921 Denmark sent its representative to Kaunas, even before it officially recognized the independence of Lithuania. 
29.07.1921 the chocolate and confectionery factory “Tilka“ (Tilmansas ir Kaganas) was established in Šančiai (Juozapavičiaus Ave. 80) after the merger of R. Tilmans‘ bonemeal and brother Kagans‘ Šiauliai chocolate and confectionery factories.  
15–16.10.1921 the first Exhibition of Agriculture took place next to the Military Museum. 
16.10.1921 the Monument for Victims of Fight for Freedom of Lithuania (“Žuvusiems už Lietuvos laisvę”) was unveiled in the Garden of the War Museum (sculptor J. Zikaras; architect V. Dubeneckis). 
07.11.1921 USA consulate started functioning in the house number 6 in Gediminas St. 
November 1921 the Girls’ Teachers’ Seminary of the fellowship of Vincent de Paul (present Rotušės Square 7). 
1921 St. Casimir’s church was built in Aleksotas. 
1921 “Varpas” publishing house was established (10 Laisvės Ave., present 60) under the initiative of political party Valstiečiai liaudininkai.  
1921 was opened the legation of Estonia. From 1928 it worked in K. Donelaičio St. 71 and in 1931–1940 in Parodos St. 16.  
1921 under the initiative of the Trade Union of Lithuanian Teachers, the cooperative society “Spaudos fondas” (Vytauto Ave. 23 ) was established.  
1921 Kaunas Volunteer Firefighters’ Association (in the interwar period – E. Ožeškienės St. 27) was founded and Kaunas military fire-brigade formed under Lithuania army car battalion.  
25.01.1922 under the initiative of Jew descent businessmen A. Rozenberg, E. Taubman and M. Judasin, the laboratory of pharmaceutical chemistry “Sanitas” was established. 
30.01.1922 Finnish legation was established in Kęstučio Street, its Honorary Consul was Vainio Aarnio.  
01.05.1922 the consulate of Czechoslovakia was opened in the building at the corner of Nepriklausomybės Sq. and Laisvės Ave.  
02.10.1922 the Bank of Lithuania started operating. 
01.11.1922 militia school was established in Linksmadvaris (Viesulava). 
18.11.1922 an official opening ceremony of Kaunas Pedagogical Museum (Laisvės Ave. 12, present 24) was arranged. 
20.12.1922 after Lithuania's independence was recognized by Italy, the office of its legation settled in “Versalis” hotel. 
1922 a group of people established the joint-stock brewery “Ragutis”  
1922 the embassy of France was opened in the building, located in Vytauto Ave. 89 / Laisvės Ave. 9. The first floor of the building housed the consulate of Argentina. 
1922 the consulate of Switzerland was established in Kaunas; 
1922 the stock company “Palemonas” was opened by industrialist J. Vailokaitis and engineer V. Geiga. 
1922 Sweden established its consulate in Kaunas. Sweden was the second country to recognize the independence of Lithuania on 12.12.1918. 
1922 the legation of Great Britain was opened in 29 Kęstučio St. 
1922–1928 the consulate of the Kingdom of the Netherlands resided in Laisvės Ave,  
22.04.1923 Agricultural Cooperative Union was established.  
18.07.1923 the first girls’ pro-gymnasium in Lithuania was established in “Saulės” house.  
22.09.1923 Salamonai brothers’ tobacco and cigarettes factory was opened (E. Ožeškienės St. 14, present no. 18). 
23.11.1923 sculpture bust of Dr. Jonas Basanavičius was unveiled at the garden of the War Museum (demolished in 1950, rebuilt on 30.12.1988). 
1923 was established Rašliavos museum under the Faculty of Humanities of the Lithuania University ( previously called the museum of culture) (K. Donelaičio St. 26, present 20).  
1923 the Consulate of Norway was opened in Kaunas (previously Laisvės Al. 15). 
1923 the Botanical Garden was established in Aukštoji Freda. 
1923 food processing factory Maistas was established in Kaunas. 
23–25.08.1924 the first Song Festival (then called the Song Day) took place in P. Vileišio Square.  
15.09.1924 Simonas Daukantas seminary was opened in “Saulės” house (Ukmergės Rd., present Savanorių Ave. 46) (head Dr. K. Ruginis).  
26.09.1924 the ceremony of signing the Act to start the sewerage and drainage system construction in Kaunas.  
September 1924 three buses, owned by Auto company, started running from City Hall Square to Panemune, thus initiating bus services in Kaunas.  
1924 the Jesuit Gymnasium of Kaunas was re-established after 100 years (it had been closed by Russian government in 1824).  
1924 book publishing company “Sakalas” was established in Maironis’ house (Rotušės Sq.13) by the efforts of A. Kniūkšta. 
19.04.1925 the building of the Lithuanian Society of St. Zita, the patron of maids and domestic workers, was constructed and consecrated. (present Gimnazijos St. 7; arch. F. Vizbaras).  
24.04.1925 under the initiative of V. Ruzgas, Vincas Kudirka Library-Reading Room was established in the centre of the city (Laisvės Ave. 48). 
01.06.1925 the first tricot factory “Glalev” was established in Kaunas (Kęstučio St. 63) by G. Glazeris and Z. Levušas.  
13.12.1925 M. K. Čiurlionis temporary gallery was opened (architect V. Dubeneckis) in the Hill of Oaks (Ąžuolų kalnas) that became the centre of Lithuanian museology.  
1925 Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established ; in 1936 it was reorganized into Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Crafts (CCIC). 
1925 next to the old “Metropolis” hotel with restaurant was attached new hotel “Lietuva” (architect V. Dubeneckis).  
1925 the Central Jewish Bank was built (founded in 1920).  
1925–1931 Chamber of Physics and Chemistry Institute of Vytautas Magnus University was built in Linksmadvaris. 
04.04.1926 Kaunas Archdiocese was established. 
27.05.1926 Chamber of Agriculture was established, 
12.06.1926 the beginning of radio transmissions in Lithuania. Kaunas radio station (Radiofonas) (Perkūno Ave. 2) started broadcasting ELTA’s messages and music.  
09.08.1926 catholic Internunciature was established in Kaunas. At 09.11.1928 Apostolic nunciature of Vatican that worked in K. Donelaičio St. 44.  
17.12.1926 was staged a coup d´etat. Democratically elected president Kazys Grinius was overthrown and was introduced the authoritarian regime of Antanas Smetona. 
1926 a severe flood occurred in Kaunas. 
01.09.1927 Kaunas “Aušros” State Gymnasium was established (Gimnazijos St. 3).  
September 1927 the Consulate of Austria was opened in Kaunas (present Laisvės Avenue 90).  
21.10.1927 “Pienocentras“ plc. was established as the central union of dairy processing companies. 
November 1927 in Nemuno St. 12 (at that time) Kaunas Out-of-Town Bus Station was opened.  
1927 Anti-Alcohol Museum (Priešalkoholinis muziejus) was established in the Folk Centre (Liaudies namai) that housed abstinent students’ corporation called Ateitininkai (Lukšio St. 15, present Gertrūdos St.).  
1927 textile factory “Liteksas” was established (“Litex”; 5 Gedimino St.) which soon became the largest manufacturer of woolen fabric in the Baltic region. 
1927 a JSC “Lietuvos degtukai” started operating in Vilijampolė.  
1927 was founded “Aleksotas” glass factory. 
16.02.1928 the palace (architect E. Frykas) which housed Lithuanian National Students’ Corporation “Neo-Lithuania” (established in 1922) was solemnly opened.  
27.02.1928 the Kaunas Institute for the Blind was opened (Tvirtovės Ave., present Taikos Ave.).  
23.03.1928 the joint-stock company “Pažanga” (Laisvės Ave. 29) was established. It prepared, published and distributed books, brochures, and newspapers.  
14.05.1928 the Statue of Liberty (sculptor of J. Zikaras; architect V. Dubeneckis) was unveiled in the Garden of the War Museum. 
20.07.1928 after publishing-houses “Švyturys” (which operated in Kaunas in 1924–1928) and State publishing-house (which operated in Kaunas in 1918–1928) were merged, a joint-stock printing-house “Spindulys” (Miško St. 11) was established. 
04.12.1928 Metropolitain, one of the largest cinemas (800 seats), was opened (Laisvės Ave. 71; architects V. Dubeneckis, K. Dušauskas-Duž). 
22.12.1928 Panemunė bridge across the Nemunas river was built (In 1916, the German army had built the first temporary bridge).  
1928 St. Lucas Hospital was established in a wooden house near the 7th fort.  
1928 tricot company “Silva” started operating in Vilijampolė. 
1928 small Christ’s Resurrection Church was built, designed by engineer Z. Novenny. 
30.10.1929 Vilijampolė (Petro Vileišio) bridge across the Neris river was opened (the first wooden bridge was built during World War I). 
15.12.1929 a centralised water supply system started functioning in Kaunas.  
1929 started operating one of the oldest factories of silicate articles in Lithuania “Bitukas” in Petrašiūnai. 
11.01.1930 Aleksotas (Vytautas the Great) bridge across the Nemunas was opened.  
20.09.1930 Latvian businessman R. Hirša established the stock company “Kauno audiniai” in the former place of Tilmansas factory (Griunvaldo St. 3/5). 
11.11.1930 Petrašiūnai Thermal Power plant started generating electric power for the city, and became the main power supplier.  
25.12.1930 the most modern cinema in the country Forum (750 seats) was opened (in the Soviet times called Laisvė; Laisvės Ave. 46a) which operated until 2001; 
1930 in the place of wooden chapel (present territory of Ramybės park) by the initiative of Tatar Society was started the construction of a mosque  
1930 palace of the Ministry of Justice was built (architect E. Frykas, L. Sapiegos St. 5/ E. Ožeškienės St. 12).  
1930 was commemorated the 500th anniversary of the death of Vytautas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania. 
1930–1931 the bridge of reinforced concrete over the Jiesia was being built.  
01.09.1931 primary school was opened. On 09.10.1931 it was named after Jonas Jablonskis. 
1931 a metal bridge was built across the Nevėžis river, named after Vincas Stašelis, a teacher in Raudondvaris town, who perished in a liberation battle in Klaipėda in 1923.  
1931 in order to improve the connection between the downtown and the uphill areas, Žaliakalnis funicular was built,  
1931–1934 construction works of the stock company “Pienocentras” took place (Laisvės Ave. 55 / S. Daukantas St.18; architect V. Landsbergis-Žemkalnis). 
02.01.1932 the Central Post Office was opened (Laisvės Ave. 102; architect F. Vizbaras). 
04.09.1932 artist N. Arbit Blatas (also called Arbitblatas, Blatas Arbit) established the first private art gallery-salon in Kaunas as well as in Baltic countries 
07.09.1932 a monument to Vytautas the Great was unveiled in Aukštoji Panemunė, in the courtyard of the Military School (sculpt. Vincas Grybas).  
04.12.1932 under the initiative of the union of organizations caring for Lithuanian mothers and children (chairperson J. Tūbelienė), Mother and Child Museum (Laisvės Ave. 24) was established.  
1932 the first fur processing factory called “Vilkas” (in Vilijampolė, Degtukų St. 22) was established by Vinikai brothers. 
1932 The Church of St. Joseph was built in Vilijampolė. 
1932–1935 St. Vincent De Paul Church was built in Petrašiūnai (author of the project Mikalojus Mačiulskis). 
12.01.1933 Petrašiūnai Paper Factory started operating (present R. Kalantos St. 34). 
19.07.1933 60,000 people gathered at Kaunas airport to pay honour to the pilots S. Darius’ and S. Girėnas’ remains.  
1933 stock company and factory of rubber articles “Inkaras” was founded in Vilijampolė (present Raudondvario 122 highway). 
1933 the Palace of Medicine Faculty of Vytautas Magnus University was opened (A. Mickevičiaus St. 9; architect V. Dubeneckis, engineer F. Vizbaras). 
1933 Kaunas County Municipality Palace was built (architect Vytautas Landsbergis–Žemkalnis). 
1933–1940 was built set of buildings of Veterinary Academy (18 Tilžės St.; author of the project: engineer Jonas Jasiukaitis).  
01.07–28.06.1934 Kaunas hosted the First National Eucharist Congress of Lithuania. 
29.06.1934 the corner stone of Kaunas Monumental Christ's Resurrection Church was consecrated. 
03.10.1934 started functioning foot-wear factory “Lithuanica” that belonged to Šaja-Beras and Mordhelis Gothelfas brothers (Jonavos St. 13). 
03.05.1935 under prof. Tadas Ivanauskas‘ initiative, Kaunas Zoological Gardens, Ltd was established.  
11–17.08.1935 the first Lithuanian World Congress was held. 
1935 in the old cemetery (present Ramybės Park) was build the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Blagoveščenskaja) of the Blessed Virgin Mary (architect E. Frykas), it is still open. 
1935 was built the Chamber of the Land Bank (Žemės bankas) (Vienybės Sq. / K. Donelaičio St. 73, author of the project: engineer Karolis Reisonas). 
28.06.1936 Maironis museum was opened. In 1941, it was named Maironis Lithuanian Literature Museum. 
01.11.1936 Kaunas Saint Anthony of Padua Church was consecrated (Kauno Šv. Antano Paduviečio bažnyčia) (author of the project: engineer A. Bistrickas).  
1936 was finished the construction work of Kaukas stairs, designed by engineer F. Vizbaras, project was prepared by architect Stasys Kudokas.  
1936 was opened The Chamber of Work (Darbo rūmai), in 1940 it settled in the building designed by A. Lukošaitis and A. Novickis. 
1936 Pranas Mažylis Private Hospital for Women was established. 
24.04.1937 was opened Karininkų ramovė (Kaunas’ House of Officers) (A. Mickevičiaus St. 19, authors of the project: V. Dubeneckis, S. Kudokas, K. Krikščiukaitis).  
1937 was founded 5th state-owned gymnasium (Vytauto Ave. 30); on 01.10.1940 it became 5th secondary school. 
1937–1939 the Hospital of Vytautas Magnus University was established (Eivenių St. 2).  
1937–1940 Kaunas Evangelical Reformed Church was built (E. Ožeškienės St. 41). 
29.03.1938 was established the legation of Poland. It worked in “Lietuvos” hotel for two months, later it was transferred to other premises in Kęstučio St. 24. 
1938 Research laboratory was built by the order of Armament Board of the Ministry of National Defence (architect V. Landsbergis-Žemkalnis). 
1938 was built The Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Žemieji Šančiai (A. Juozapavičiaus Ave 60.; author of the project: architect A. Šalkauskis). 
21.05.1939 Sports Hall was opened (present 5 Perkūno Ave.; author of the project: engineer A. Rozenbliumas) that had a capacity of 11,000 people (seating capacity of 3,500). 
1938–1940 Savings-bank Palace (Taupomųjų kasų rūmai) was built (architects: A. Funkas, A. Lukošaitis and B. Elsbergas). 
06.03.1939 Kaunas Antanas Smetona Institute of Lithuanian Studies was established (Totorių St. 12 – old numeration). It investigated Lithuanian history, language and folklore. In 1940, the institute was moved to Vilnius. 
November 1939 consulate of Japan was established in Žaliakalnis 
1939 Petrašiūnai Cemetery was established (M. Gimbutienės St. 28).  
08.03.1940 cinema "Pasaka" was opened with seating capacity of 515 (architect A. Paškevičius; Savanorių Ave. 124).