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Under the Rule of Tzarist Russia (1795–1915)


1795 the third partition of the Lithuanian-Polish State, 
1802 under the initiative of citizens, the first fire-brigade was established. Fire-brigade of the police of the city was established in 1808; the official fire-brigade of the municipal government in 1817.  
24.06.1812 at the beginning of the war against Russia, a large part of the French army, led by Emperor Napoleon I, crossed the river Nemunas in Kaunas. 
1819–1823 poet Adomas Mickevičius (Adam Mickiewicz, 1798–1855) taught at Kaunas County school (present Kaunas Jesuit gymnasium).  
1828 Kaunas Postal Station was built in City Hall Square (architect Josef Pusje). 
11–18.06.1831 for seven days, Kaunas was in the hands of rebels against Tsarist rule. 
1836 Military Hospital was established in the former premises of Carmelite Monastery. 
1843 Kaunas province (gubernija) was estabished,  
1844 Kražiai gymnasium (established as a Jesuit college in 1616) was moved to Kaunas and named the Gymnasium of Kaunas province (gubernija).  
1846 construction of the Governor‘s Palace started  
21.02.1847 tsar Nikolai I approved the plan of Kaunas city development (appended in 1871) 
1847 the old city cemetery was established (Vytautas Ave., present Ramybės Park)  
1848 the first Lithuanian book in Kaunas and the first Lithuanian book on healthcare in Lithuania “Regulas del skarbawu žmonių...“ (Rules for Public Servants, translated from Russian) was published at Mauša Tipografas (Zymelovičius) printing house. 
1852 a market place was opened in the Old City (present Steigiamojo Seimo Square). Closed in 1976. 
1853 the first steam brewery, owned by I. B. Volf, started operating in Vilijampolė, laying the foundations for Lithuanian beer industry.  
1854 the year is considered to be the beginning of photography in Kaunas.  
1854–1856 during the Crimean war, Kaunas became the only Russian port exporting grain which was not blocked by Brits. 
1855 the Nemunas embankment was paved with granite slabs,  
1858 a decree was issued ensuring Jewish people the right to live and build houses in all parts of Kaunas. 
09.05.1859 construction of Kaunas railway tunnel,  
1859–1862 the Green (Railway) Bridge was built in Žemutine Freda.  
1861 Žaliakalnis Jewish cemetery was established (Radvilėnų Rd.),  
1862 N. Rekošas established the factory “Minerva” in Kaunas (present Vytauto Ave.) –  
1862 the building of the Kauno Province (gubernija) Gymnasium was constructed, the present Maironis Gymnasium architect Nikolai Čagin; Gimnazijos St. 3)  
1862 the Resurrection (Voskresenskaja) Russian Orthodox Church was built in the Carmelite cemetery, 
1862 Jewish hospital “Bikur Cholim” was built (present A. Jakšto St. 5). 
1863 a telegraph station with 10 telegraph operators was opened in Kaunas  
1863* a railway station was built in Kaunas, 
28.12.1863 one of the leaders of the Polish-Lithuanian uprising, priest Antanas Mackevičius, was executed by the Tsarist government in Kaunas.  
03.12.1864 the Residence of the Samogitian (Žemaitija) Diocese and the Catholic Seminary were moved from Varniai to Kaunas. 
1864 Kaunas prison was built (architect N. Ikonnikov; A. Mickevičius St.). 
1867 the Tilmans‘ Metal Factory was built in the Carmelite district, near Malaja Gospitalnaja (present Kaunakiemio) St. 
22.07.1870 Readers‘ Society originated in the city; they established the first public library in Kaunas.  
1871 the park in Vytautas' hill set up upon the initiative of Kaunas Dūma,  
17.07.1872 1st Guild merchant Levinas Boruchovas Minkovskis received a permission to build a Choral Synagogue in Kaunas (E. Ožeškienės St. 13; architect unknown). 
01.01.1876 Election to Kaunas Municipality took place 
1879 with the permission of Kaunas Province Board, the German industrialist V. Schmidt started building the factory “Vestfalija“ in Šančiai for manufacturing wire, nails and iron goods. 
07.07.1879 Kaunas was granted the status of a 1st class military fortress of the Russian Empire frontier.  
1880 cemeteries in Freda (Ž. E. Žilibero St.) and Aleksotas (Veiverių St) were established. 
1880 Eiguliai cemetery was established. 
1880 Hasidic Synagogue was built (Gimnazijos St. 6). 
1880 a furniture factory ‘‘Elena’’ was established in the Žemoji Freda, it was the predecessor of JSC „Kauno baldai“. 
26.11.1883 the Court of Kaunas County was established in the building owned by I. Frumkin (architect Ustinas Golinevičius) since 1881 (present Laisvės Ave 103.) 
1884 the state-owned girls‘ gymnasium was built (Laisvės Ave. 95, architect Ustinas Golinevičius).  
1887 under the Municipality resolution, the new central streets were paved with stones. 
1889 project of incorporating Šančiai and part of Žaliakalnis into the city area was prepared, but not approved. 
Around 1890 the Military Cemetery was established in Aukštieji Šančiai (Ašmenos St.);  
1890–1898 Evangelical Baptist church was built on Šančiai outskirts. 
1891 under the initiative of Kaunas Fortress Commnadant‘s office, a Russian Orthodox Church was built in Freda (Botanikos St. 10),  
09.01.1892 the City Theatre with 500 seats was opened. (architect Ustinas Golinevičius). The first performance was the comedy Revizor (The Inspector-General) by N. Gogol. 
24.05.1892 a horse tramway (konkė) started running from City hall square to the Railway Station. It served citizens until 15.04.1929  
17.09.1895 the Russian Orthodox Church, St. Peter and Paul Sobor, was consecrated (present St. Michael Archangel‘s Church).  
1896 Mother of Christ Russian Orthodox Church for Volga infantry regiment No.109 was built in Šančiai. 
1897 the “Central Hotel” was built (Laisvės Ave. 21 / Nepriklausomybės Sq. 13). The owner of the hotel was Ana Press; architect Nikolajus Andrejevas. 
1897 Isakas Pikeris opened the Versalis Hotel in his possession (Laisvės Ave. 88, architect Nikolajus Andrejevas), which was purchased by Dominykas Venckauskas in 1904. 
1897 the formation of the City Museum started; opened to the public on 21.11.1898 (Rotušės Sq. 19).  
1898 and 1899 II and III congresses of the Jewish Workers‘ Union (Bund) took place in Kaunas. 
December 1898 the Folk Centre (Liaudies namai) was built.  
1899 the central power station was built in Kaunas (present Vienybės Sq.; architect Edmundas Frykas, Sr.). It started generating power on 02.01.1900  
1899 the Metropolis Hotel with a restaurant was built. 
1899 barracks were built in Žemieji Šančiai.  
1899 a secret society of music and theatre “Daina” was established in Kaunas; officially, it started functioning in 1904 . 
1900 Veršvos cemetery was established (Vilijampolė, Atramos St.). Currently, it is partially open, only for burials in family graves. 
1901* the old Šančiai cemetery was established,  
24–25.01.1905 ir 25–27.12.1905 general political strikes took place in Kaunas. 
29.01.1905 composer Juozas Naujalis opened the first legal Lithuanian bookshop in Kaunas (Rotušės Sq. 27)  
1905 the first Lithuanian printing house in Kaunas was established by Saliamonas Banaitis (Rotušės Sq. 23).  
1905 the first Kaunas cinema theatre, Bovi, opened its doors in I.Frumkin‘s house in Nikolayevski Ave. (present. Laisvės Ave.).  
November 1906 the bookshop of Ona Vitkauskytė was established, which operated in the Town Hall until 1915;  
1906 the Catholic Lithuanian Society “Saulė” was established,  
1906 Kaunas St. Nicholas‘ Old Russian Orthodox Church (still functioning nowadays) was consecrated in Žaliakalnis. 
1906 “Stumbras” distillery was built in Kaunas.  
1906 under the initiative of priest Konstantinas Olšauskas, St. Joseph Workers‘ Society was established,  
1906 under the initiative of teachers T. F. Žilinskas, M. Vasiliauskas, first Lithuanian schools in Kaunas  
15.09.1907 pedagogical courses of the “Saulė” fellowship were established (they were functioning illegally since 1906). 
30.11.1908 when marking the tenth anniversary of the medical nurses‘ community, Kaunas Red Cross Hospital was opened. 
1910–1911 Methodist Church was built in Šančiai (author of the project – priest G. Durdis). 
1912–1913 “Saulės” gymnasium was built.  
1912–1913 an airport was built in Panemunė by the Tsarist army for the defence of the western border of the Empire.